Areas of Law and Guides
Admiralty & Maritime
Admiralty & Maritime
Admiralty law or maritime law is a distinct body of law that governs maritime questions and offenses. It is a body of both domestic law governing maritime activities, and private international law governing the relationships between private entities that operate vessels on the oceans. It deals with matters including marine commerce, marine navigation, marine salvaging, shipping, sailors, and the transportation of passengers and goods by sea. Admiralty law also covers many commercial activities, although land based or occurring wholly on land, that are maritime in character.
Admiralty law is distinguished from the Law of the Sea, which is a body of public international law dealing with navigational rights, mineral rights, jurisdiction over coastal waters and international law governing relationships between nations.
Although each legal jurisdiction usually has its own enacted legislation governing maritime matters, admiralty law is characterized by a significant amount of international law developed in recent decades, including numerous multilateral treaties.
Prior to the mid-1970s, most international conventions concerning maritime trade and commerce originated in a private organization of maritime lawyers known as the Comité Maritime International (International Maritime Committee or CMI). Founded in 1897, the CMI was responsible for the drafting of numerous international conventions including the Hague Rules (International Convention on Bills of Lading), the Visby Amendments (amending the Hague Rules), the Salvage Convention and many others. While the CMI continues to function in an advisory capacity, many of its functions have been taken over by the International Maritime Organization, which was established by the United Nations in 1958 but did not become truly effective until about 1974.
The IMO has prepared numerous international conventions concerning maritime safety including the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the Standards for Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping (STCW), the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (Collision Regulations or COLREGS), Maritime Pollution Regulations (MARPOL), International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue Convention (IAMSAR) and others. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) defined a treaty regarding protection of the marine environment and various maritime boundaries.
Once adopted, the international conventions are enforced by the individual nations which are signatories, either through their local Coast Guards, or through their courts.
Maritime law academic programs
There are several universities that offer maritime law programs. What follows is a partial list of universities offering postgraduate maritime courses:
- Dalhousie Law School - LL.M in marine and environmental law
- University of Hamburg with Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law - PhD in maritime law
- Erasmus University Rotterdam - LL.M. in Business, Corporate, and Maritime Law; Master of Science (M.Sc.) In Maritime Economics and Logistics (MEL)
- National University of Singapore - LL.M in maritime law (Graduate Diploma in Maritime Law and Arbitration International Maritime Organization)
- South Africa
- University of Cape Town - Masters in Maritime Law
- Thammasat University - LL.M. in international trade law
- United Kingdom
- Bangor University - LLM in Maritime Law and LLM in Law of the Sea
- Cardiff University - LLM in Shipping Law
- City University London - LLM in Maritime Law
- Queen Mary, University of London - LLM in International Shipping Law
- Swansea University (Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law) - LLM in International Maritime Law
- University College London - LLM in Maritime Law
- University of Hertfordshire - LLM in Maritime Law
- University of Nottingham - LLM in Maritime Law
- University of Southampton School of Law (Institute of Maritime Law) - LLB (Maritime Law) and LLM in Maritime Law
- United States
- Florida Coastal School of Law - LL.M. in Logistics and Transportation Law
- St. Thomas University School of Law
- Tulane University Law School - LL.M in admiralty & JD with a Certificate of Specialization in Admiralty & Maritime Law
- University of Miami Law School - LL.M in Ocean and Coastal Law
- William S. Richardson School of Law University of Hawaii - LL.M. in Ocean Law and Policy